Glass jar is a commonly used in food packaging, gift packaging, medicinal packaging of chemical containers.
Glass jar production process:
The production process of glass jar mainly includes raw material pre-processing. The lime raw materials (quartz sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar, etc.) crushed, so that the wet raw materials dry, iron-containing raw materials for iron treatment to ensure the quality of glass. Preparation of mating materials. Glass batch material in the pool kiln or pool furnace for high temperature 1550 ~ 1600 degrees, heating, so that the formation of uniform, no bubbles, and meet the molding requirements of liquid glass molding. The liquid glass into the mold made of the required shape of the glass products, such as flat, various utensils and other heat treatment. Through the annealing, quenching and other processes to eliminate or produce the internal stress of the glass, split or crystallization, and change the structure of the glass state. Quality requirements Glass bottles should have a certain performance and meet certain quality standards.
① glass quality: pure uniform, no gravel, stripes, bubbles and other defects. Colorless glass of high transparency; color glass color uniformity and stability, can absorb a certain wavelength of light energy.
② physical and chemical properties: a certain degree of chemical stability, does not play with the stuff. Has a certain degree of shock resistance and mechanical strength, can withstand washing, sterilization and other heating, cooling process and bear the filling, storage and transportation, encountered general internal and external stress, vibration, shock, can be maintained without damage.
③ forming quality: to maintain a certain capacity, weight and shape, uniform wall thickness, mouth smooth, smooth to ensure good filling and sealing good. No distortion, deformation, uneven surface and cracks and other defects.
Manufacturing process Glass jar manufacturing mainly includes preparation of raw materials, melting, molding, annealing, surface treatment and processing, inspection and packaging processes.
① preparation of ingredients: including the storage of raw materials, weighing, mixing and batching of the delivery. Requires mix of ingredients evenly, the chemical composition is stable.
② Melting: The melting of the glass of the bottle is carried out in the continuous operation of the flame pool kiln (see glass melting furnace). Horizontal flame pool kiln daily output is generally more than 200t, large up to 400 ~ 500t. Horseshoe-shaped fire pool kiln daily output of more than 200t. Glass melting temperature up to 1580 ~ 1600 ℃. Melt energy consumption accounts for about 70% of total energy consumption in production. Through the pool kiln full insulation, increase the capacity of the regenerator lattice brick, to improve the material pile distribution, improve the combustion efficiency and control of glass liquid convection and other measures to effectively save energy. Bubble in the melting tank to improve the convection of glass, to strengthen the clarification process, increase the amount of material. In the flame kiln with electric heating, can not increase the number of cases in the furnace to increase production and improve quality.
③ molding: the main use of molding method, the application of blowing - blow molding small jar, pressure - blowing method of forming jars (see glass). Less use of control. The production of modern glass bottles widely used automatic bottle machine high-speed molding. This bottle machine on the drop weight, shape and uniformity have a certain requirement, so to strictly control the temperature in the feed tank. Automatic bottle making machine type more, of which the most commonly used in the determinant bottle machine. This bottle of machine drops from the bottle making machine, rather than the bottle machine from the drop, so there is no rotation part, safe operation, and any part can be a separate parking maintenance without affecting the other branch operations. The determinative bottle making machine has a wide range of bottles and can be developed into 12 groups, double drop or three drops of material and computer control.
(4) Annealing: The annealing of the glass jar is to reduce the permanent stress remaining in the glass to the permissible value. Annealing is usually carried out in a ribbon-type continuous annealing furnace with a maximum annealing temperature of about 550 to 600 ° C. Net belt annealing furnace with forced air circulation heating, so that the furnace cross-section temperature distribution and the formation of air curtain, limiting the vertical air movement, to ensure that the furnace temperature uniformity and stability.
⑤ surface treatment and processing: generally through the hot end of the annealing furnace and cold side of the method of coating the glass cans surface treatment. The hot end coating is placed in a hot state (500 to 600 ° C) in a heated state in the atmosphere of vaporized tin tetrachloride, titanium tetrachloride or tin tetrachloride, so that these metal compounds The surface of the hot cans is decomposed and oxidized into oxide films to fill the surface of the glass microcracks while preventing the generation of microcracks on the surface and improving the mechanical strength of the glass jars. Cold end coating is the use of monostearate, oleic acid, polyethylene emulsion, silicone or silane, etc., at the exit of the furnace at a temperature of about 100 ~ 150 ℃ bottle surface sprayed to form a layer of lubricating film, To improve the anti-wear, lubricity and impact strength of the surface of the bottle. Production, the cold side of the coating and the hot side of the coating is often used in combination. For more than 1l large capacity bottles, and some in its surface plus foam polystyrene or polyethylene film jacket. Sheathed with heat shrinkability, put on the heat tightened after the bottle, tough and flexible, shock and anti-friction, bottled broken pieces without flying into, to avoid personal injury.
Equipped with glass stopper reagent bottles, vials, perfume bottles and other mortar or emery plus water for abrasive grinding and grinding. Advanced cosmetics, perfume bottles are often grinding and polishing, eliminating mold marks, increase the gloss. High-grade bottles or art decoration of the bottle with hydrofluoric acid for corrosion, resulting in surface light diffuse, feel fine. For the printing and printing of glass on the surface, can be used to spray color, screen printing, decal processing methods, the glass glaze applied to the surface of the bottle, baked at 600 ℃, glaze and glass sintering, the formation of a permanent pattern The If you use organic pigment color decoration, only by 200 ~ 300 ℃ melting.
⑥ test: to identify defective products, to ensure product quality. The defect of the glass jar is divided into two categories: the glass itself defect and the bottle forming defect. The former includes bubbles, stones, stripes and color irregularities; the latter is crack, uneven thickness, deformation, cold spots, wrinkles and so on. In addition, the need to check the bottle weight, capacity, bottle and bottle size tolerance, resistance to internal stress, heat shock and stress relief. Beer bottles, beverage bottles and other food due to the high speed, large quantities, by visual inspection has been unable to adapt, is now automatically check the equipment, such as preselection (check the shape and size of the tank tolerance), bottle checker, crack Inspection device, wall thickness inspection device, extrusion tester, pressure tester and so on.
⑦ packaging: a corrugated cardboard box packaging, plastic box packaging and tray packaging packaging. Have been automated. Corrugated cardboard box packaging from the empty bottle packaging until the filling, sales, are using the same carton. Plastic box packaging using plastic box can be recycled for recycling. Pallet container packaging is the inspection of qualified bottles arranged in a rectangular bottle array, moved to the tray stacked on the stack, to the provisions of the number of layers that is bandaged. Generally also covered with plastic film sets, heating to shrink, tightly wrapped into a solid whole, and then bundled, this also known as thermoplastic packaging.